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B2 ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIVING SYSTEMS
B2 L2.p1 Cells
B2 L2.p1 Cells prerequisite L2.p1A Distinguish between living and nonliving systems.
B2 L2.p1 Cells prerequisite L2.p1B Explain the importance of both water and the element carbon to cells.
B2 L2.p1 Cells prerequisite L2.p1C Describe growth and development in terms of increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products.
B2 L2.p1 Cells prerequisite L2.p1D Explain how the systems in a multicellular organism work together to support the organism.
B2 L2.p1 Cells prerequisite L2.p1E Compare and contrast how different organisms accomplish similar functions (e.g., obtain oxygen for respiration, and excrete waste).
B2 L2.p2 Cell Function
B2 L2.p2 Cell Function prerequisite L2.p2A Describe how organisms sustain life by obtaining, transporting, transforming, releasing, and eliminating matter and energy.
B2 L2.p2 Cell Function prerequisite L2.p2B Describe the effect of limiting food to developing cells.
B2 L2.p3 Plants as Producers
B2 L2.p3 Plants as Producers prerequisite L2.p3A Explain the signifi cance of carbon in organic molecules.
B2 L2.p3 Plants as Producers prerequisite L2.p3B Explain the origins of plant mass.
B2 L2.p3 Plants as Producers prerequisite L2.p3C Predict what would happen to plants growing in low carbon dioxide atmospheres.
B2 L2.p3 Plants as Producers prerequisite L2.p3D Explain how the roots of specifi c plants grow.
B2 L2.p4 Animals as Consumers
B2 L2.p4 Animals as Consumers prerequisite L2.p4A Classify different organisms based on how they obtain energy for growth and development.
B2 L2.p4 Animals as Consumers prerequisite L2.p4B Explain how an organism obtains energy from the food it consumes.
B2 L2.p5 Common Elements
B2 L2.p5 Common Elements prerequisite L2.p5A Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S).
B2 L2.p5 Common Elements prerequisite L2.p5B Identify the most common complex molecules that make up living organisms.
B2 L2.p5 Common Elements prerequisite L2.p5C Predict what would happen if essential elements were withheld from developing cells.
B2 B2.1 Transformation of Matter and Energy in Cells
B2 B2.1 Transformation of Matter and Energy in Cells essential B2.1A Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis.
B2 B2.1 Transformation of Matter and Energy in Cells essential B2.1B Compare and contrast the transformation of matter and energy during photosynthesis and respiration.
B2 B2.1 Transformation of Matter and Energy in Cells essential B2.1C Explain cell division, growth, and development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products.
B2 B2.1x Cell Differentiation core B2.1d Describe how, through cell division, cells can become specialized for specifi c function.
B2 B2.1x Cell Differentiation core B2.1e Predict what would happen if the cells from one part of a developing embryo were transplanted to another part of the embryo.
B2 B2.2 Organic Molecules
B2 B2.2 Organic Molecules essential B2.2A Explain how carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.
B2 B2.2 Organic Molecules essential B2.2B Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S).
B2 B2.2 Organic Molecules essential B2.2C Describe the composition of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids).
B2 B2.2 Organic Molecules essential B2.2D Explain the general structure and primary functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms.
B2 B2.2 Organic Molecules essential B2.2E Describe how dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molecules.
B2 B2.2x Proteins
B2 B2.2x Proteins core B2.2f Explain the role of enzymes and other proteins in biochemical functions (e.g., the protein hemoglobin carries oxygen in some organisms, digestive enzymes, and hormones).
B2 B2.2x Proteins core B2.2g Propose how moving an organism to a new environment may infl uence it ability to survive and predict the possible impact of this type of transfer.
B2 B2.3 Maintaining Environmental Stability
B2 B2.3 Maintaining Environmental Stability essential B2.3A Describe how cells function in a narrow range of physical conditions, such as temperature and pH (acidity), to perform life functions.
B2 B2.3 Maintaining Environmental Stability essential B2.3B Describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life.
B2 B2.3 Maintaining Environmental Stability essential B2.3C Explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions as well as the presence of disease agents.
B2 B2.3x Homeostasis
B2 B2.3x Homeostasis core B2.3d Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, and movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each
B2 B2.3x Homeostasis core B2.3e Describe how human body systems maintain relatively constant internal conditions (temperature, acidity, and blood sugar).
B2 B2.3x Homeostasis core B2.3f Explain how human organ systems help maintain human health.
B2 B2.3x Homeostasis core B2.3g Compare the structure and function of a human body system or subsystem to a nonliving system (e.g., human joints to hinges, enzyme and substrate to interlocking puzzle pieces).
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization essential B2.4A Explain that living things can be classifi ed based on structural, embryological, and molecular (relatedness of DNA sequence) evidence.
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization essential B2.4B Describe how various organisms have developed different specializations to accomplish a particular function and yet the end result is the same (e.g., excreting nitrogenous wastes in animals, obtaining oxygen for respiration).
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization essential B2.4C Explain how different organisms accomplish the same result using different structural specializations (gills vs. lungs vs. membranes).
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization core B2.4d Analyze the relationships among organisms based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and functional processes.
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization core B2.4e Explain how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP (build on aerobic vs. anaerobic).
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization core B2.4f Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energycontaining bonds, such as those in ATP.
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization core B2.4g Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization core B2.4h Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria.
B2 B2.4 Cell Specialization core B2.4i Recognize that while viruses lack cellular structure, they have the genetic material to invade living cells.
B2 B2.5 Living Organism Composition
B2 B2.5 Living Organism Composition essential B2.5A Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds.
B2 B2.5 Living Organism Composition essential B2.5B Explain how major systems and processes work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular functions.
B2 B2.5 Living Organism Composition essential B2.5C Describe how energy is transferred and transformed from the Sun to energy-rich molecules during photosynthesis.
B2 B2.5 Living Organism Composition essential B2.5D Describe how individual cells break down energy-rich molecules to provide energy for cell functions.
B2 B2.5x Energy Transfer
B2 B2.5x Energy Transfer core B2.5e Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of ATP synthesis and degradation.
B2 B2.5x Energy Transfer core B2.5f Relate plant structures and functions to the process of photosynthesis and respiration.
B2 B2.5x Energy Transfer core B2.5g Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
B2 B2.5x Energy Transfer core B2.5h Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport).
B2 B2.5x Energy Transfer core B2.5i Relate cell parts/organelles to their function.
B2 B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation
B2 B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation core B2.6a Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.
B2 B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation recommended B2.r6b Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as horm
B2 B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation recommended B2.r6c Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.
B2 B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation recommended B2.r6d Explain how higher levels of organization result from specifi c complex interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.
B2 B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation recommended B2.r6e Analyze the body
B3 INTERDEPENDENCE OF LIVING SYSTEMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
B3 L3.p1 Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems
B3 L3.p1 Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems prerequisite L3.p1A Provide examples of a population, community, and ecosystem.
B3 L3.p2 Relationships Among Organisms
B3 L3.p2 Relationships Among Organisms prerequisite L3.p2A Describe common relationships among organisms and provide examples of producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship.
B3 L3.p2 Relationships Among Organisms prerequisite L3.p2B Describe common ecological relationships between and among species and their environments (competition, territory, carrying capacity, natural balance, population, dependence, survival, and other biotic and abiotic factors).
B3 L3.p2 Relationships Among Organisms prerequisite L3.p2C Describe the role of decomposers in the transfer of energy in an ecosystem.
B3 L3.p2 Relationships Among Organisms prerequisite L3.p2D Explain how two organisms can be mutually beneficial and how that can lead to interdependency.
B3 L3.p3 Factors Influencing Ecosystems
B3 L3.p3 Factors Influencing Ecosystems prerequisite L3.p3A Identify the factors in an ecosystem that influence fluctuations in population size.
B3 L3.p3 Factors Influencing Ecosystems prerequisite L3.p3B Distinguish between the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of an ecosystem.
B3 L3.p3 Factors Influencing Ecosystems prerequisite L3.p3C Explain how biotic and abiotic factors cycle in an ecosystem (water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen).
B3 L3.p3 Factors Influencing Ecosystems prerequisite L3.p3D Predict how changes in one population might affect other populations based upon their relationships in a food web.
B3 L3.4 Human Impact on Ecosystems
B3 L3.4 Human Impact on Ecosystems prerequisite L3.4A Recognize that, and describe how, human beings are part of Earth
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration essential B3.1A Describe how organisms acquire energy directly or indirectly from sunlight.
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration essential B3.1B Illustrate and describe the energy conversions that occur during photosynthesis and respiration.
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration essential B3.1C Recognize the equations for photosynthesis and respiration and identify the reactants and products for both.
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration essential B3.1D Explain how living organisms gain and use mass through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration core B3.1e Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration and explain in words what they mean.
B3 B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration core B3.1f Summarize the process of photosynthesis.
B3 B3.2 Ecosystems
B3 B3.2 Ecosystems essential B3.2A Identify how energy is stored in an ecosystem.
B3 B3.2 Ecosystems essential B3.2B Describe energy transfer through an ecosystem, accounting for energy lost to the environment as heat.
B3 B3.2 Ecosystems essential B3.2C Draw the fl ow of energy through an ecosystem. Predict changes in the food web when one or more organisms are removed.
B3 B3.3 Element Recombination
B3 B3.3 Element Recombination essential B3.3A Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels.
B3 B3.3 Element Recombination core B3.3b Describe environmental processes (e.g., the carbon and nitrogen cycles) and their role in processing matter crucial for sustaining life.
B3 B3.4 Changes in Ecosystems
B3 B3.4 Changes in Ecosystems essential B3.4A Describe ecosystem stability. Understand that if a disaster such as fl ood or fi re occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages of succession that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.
B3 B3.4 Changes in Ecosystems essential B3.4B Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living organisms will survive in the face of cataclysmic changes in the environment.
B3 B3.4 Changes in Ecosystems essential B3.4C Examine the negative impact of human activities.
B3 B3.4x Human Impact
B3 B3.4x Human Impact core B3.4d Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes.
B3 B3.4x Human Impact core B3.4e List the possible causes and consequences of global warming.
B3 B3.5 Populations
B3 B3.5 Populations essential B3.5A Graph changes in population growth, given a data table.
B3 B3.5 Populations essential B3.5B Explain the infl uences that affect population growth.
B3 B3.5 Populations essential B3.5C Predict the consequences of an invading organism on the survival of other organisms.
B3 B3.5x Environmental Factors
B3 B3.5x Environmental Factors core B3.5d Describe different reproductive strategies employed by various organisms and explain their advantages and disadvantages.
B3 B3.5x Environmental Factors core B3.5e Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may infl uence the rate, extent, and nature of population dynamics within ecosystems.
B3 B3.5x Environmental Factors core B3.5f Graph an example of exponential growth. Then show the population leveling off at the carrying capacity of the environment.
B3 B3.5x Environmental Factors recommended B3.r5g Diagram and describe the stages of the life cycle for a human disease-causing organism.
B4 GENETICS
B4 L4.p1 Reproduction
B4 L4.p1 Reproduction prerequisite L4.p1A Compare and contrast the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction.
B4 L4.p1 Reproduction prerequisite L4.p1B Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sexual vs. asexual reproduction.
B4 L4.p2 Heredity and Environment
B4 L4.p2 Heredity and Environment prerequisite L4.p2A Explain that the traits of an individual are infl uenced by both the environment and the genetics of the individual. Acquired traits are not inherited; only genetic traits are inherited.
B4 B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits
B4 B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits essential B4.1A Draw and label a homologous chromosome pair with heterozygous alleles highlighting a particular gene location.
B4 B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits essential B4.1B Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes that are coded in DNA molecules. These genes contain the information for the production of proteins.
B4 B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits core B4.1c Differentiate between dominant, recessive, codominant, polygenic, and sex-linked traits.
B4 B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits core B4.1d Explain the genetic basis for Mendel
B4 B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits core B4.1e Determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid crosses using a Punnett Square.
B4 B4.2 DNA
B4 B4.2 DNA essential B4.2A Show that when mutations occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring (inherited mutations), but if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only (noninherited mutations).
B4 B4.2 DNA essential B4.2B Recognize that every species has its own characteristic DNA sequence.
B4 B4.2 DNA essential B4.2C Describe the structure and function of DNA.
B4 B4.2 DNA essential B4.2D Predict the consequences that changes in the DNA composition of particular genes may have on an organism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, other).
B4 B4.2 DNA essential B4.2E Propose possible effects (on the genes) of exposing an organism to radiation and toxic chemicals.
B4 B4.2x DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
B4 B4.2x DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis core B4.2f Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.
B4 B4.2x DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis core B4.2g Describe the processes of replication, transcription, and translation and how they relate to each other in molecular biology.
B4 B4.2x DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis core B4.2h Recognize that genetic engineering techniques provide great potential and responsibilities.
B4 B4.2x DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis recommended B4.r2i Explain how recombinant DNA technology allows scientists to analyze the structure and function of genes.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division
B4 B4.3 Cell Division essential B4.3A Compare and contrast the processes of cell division (mitosis and meiosis), particularly as those processes relate to production of new cells and to passing on genetic information between generations.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division essential B4.3B Explain why only mutations occurring in gametes (sex cells) can be passed on to offspring.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division essential B4.3C Explain how it might be possible to identify genetic defects from just a karyotype of a few cells.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division core B4.3d Explain that the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of two parents.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division core B4.3e Recognize that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division core B4.3f Predict how mutations may be transferred to progeny.
B4 B4.3 Cell Division core B4.3g Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental infl uence (e.g., metamorphosis, nutrition).
B4 B4.4x Genetic Variation
B4 B4.4x Genetic Variation core B4.4a Describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspri
B4 B4.4x Genetic Variation core B4.4b Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.
B4 B4.4x Genetic Variation core B4.4c Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may be silent or result in phenotypic change in an organism and in its offspring.
B4 B4.r5x Recombinant DNA
B4 B4.r5x Recombinant DNA recommended B4.r5a Explain how recombinant DNA technology allows scientists to analyze the structure and function of genes.
B4 B4.r5x Recombinant DNA recommended B4.r5b Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of human manipulation of DNA.
B5 EVOLUTION AND BIODIVERSITY
B5 L5.p1 Survival and Extinction
B5 L5.p1 Survival and Extinction prerequisite L5.p1A Define a species and give examples.
B5 L5.p1 Survival and Extinction prerequisite L5.p1B Define a population and identify local populations.
B5 L5.p1 Survival and Extinction prerequisite L5.p1C Explain how extinction removes genes from the gene pool.
B5 L5.p1 Survival and Extinction prerequisite L5.p1D Explain the importance of the fossil record.
B5 L5.p2 Classification
B5 L5.p2 Classification prerequisite L5.p2A Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time.
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution essential B5.1A Summarize the major concepts of natural selection (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending on environmental conditions).
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution essential B5.1B Describe how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution.
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution core B5.1c Summarize the relationships between present-day organisms and those that inhabited the Earth in the past (e.g., use fossil record, embryonic stages, homologous structures, chemical basis).
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution core B5.1d Explain how a new species or variety may originate through the evolutionary process of natural selection.
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution core B5.1e Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for the environment (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending upon environmental conditions).
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution core B5.1f Explain, using examples, how the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence may support the theory of evolution.
B5 B5.1 Theory of Evolution core B5.1g Illustrate how genetic variation is preserved or eliminated from a population through natural selection (evolution) resulting in biodiversity.
B5 B5.2x Molecular Evidence
B5 B5.2x Molecular Evidence core B5.2a Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms that can be classifi ed based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities.
B5 B5.2x Molecular Evidence core B5.2b Explain that the degree of kinship between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA and protein sequences.
B5 B5.2x Molecular Evidence core B5.2c Trace the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool, such as genetic drift and isolation of subpopulations.
B5 B5.2x Molecular Evidence recommended B5.r2d Interpret a cladogram or phylogenetic tree showing evolutionary relationships among organisms.
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection essential B5.3A Explain how natural selection acts on individuals, but it is populations that evolve. Relate genetic mutations and genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction to diversity within a given population.
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection essential B5.3B Describe the role of geographic isolation in speciation.
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection essential B5.3C Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and the diversity of organisms.
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection core B5.3d Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity.
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection core B5.3e Explain how changes at the gene level are the foundation for changes in populations and eventually the formation of new species.
B5 B5.3 Natural Selection core B5.3f Demonstrate and explain how biotechnology can improve a population and species.