BOXES ON THE PERIODIC TABLE
(this paper contains some reading, then a table to be filled in for points)
6
 

C
 

12.011

The periodic table is a science tool.  Each element listed is a type of atom.  There are over 100 kinds on it.  
Each box on the table tells you a few facts about the element.  
 
 
  • The top number is the number of protons 
  • The letter(s) in the middle show the element's symbol
  • The bottom number is the average mass of one atom.  This number is often a decimal because some atoms are heavier than others, but that's another topic for another day.

  •  
    The box shown above is the one for CARBON.  Carbon has 6 protons.  Its symbol is "C".  The average mass of carbon atoms is 12.011 atomic mass units.
    Atoms are made of three particles, protons, neutrons, and electrons.  In normal neutral atoms, the number of protons equals the number of electrons, so that is pretty easy.
    We can use the table to figure out the number of neutrons.  The only particles that we weigh are the protons and neutrons because the electrons are too light and fast for our numbers to be useful.  Their mass is only a tiny fraction of the other particles, so we usually ignore their mass.
    To get the number of neutrons, use this formula:     MASS NEAREST WHOLE # - PROTONS = NEUTRONS

    For carbon, this would be:          12 - 6 = 6 neutrons


    COMPLETE THE TABLE BELOW
    (I put the answers for the first three on the bottom so you can check your guesses till you get the hang of it)
    NAME SYMBOL PROTONS MASS (rounded to whole #) NEUTRONS (N=M-P) ELECTRONS
    ___ H _ __ _
    Helium _ _ _ _
    Calcium2+





    _ _ 11 _ _
    Calcium _ _ _ _
    _ _ _ 192 _
    _ I_ _ _ _
    Fluorine _ _ _ _
    _ _ 99 _ _
    _ _ _ 79 _
    Silver _ _ _ _
    Oxygen?




    10
    _ Cl _ _ _
    NItrogen __ _ _ _
    _ _ 5 _ _
    _ _ _ 39 _

    K+



    _ Au _ _ _
    Radon _ _ _ _
    _ _ 92 _ _
    Manganese _ _ _ _
    _ Pb _ _ _
    _ W _ _ _
    Molybdenum _ _ _ _
    _ _ _ 28 _
    _ _ 6 _ 6
    _ Ru _ _ _
    Zinc+2 _ _ _ _
    _ _ _ 48 _

    F-



    _ _ _ _ 4

    here are the answers to the first three above!

    name symbol protons mass neutrons electrons
    hydrogen H 1 1 0 1
    helium He 2 4 2 2
    calcium2+
    Ca 20
    40
    20
    18