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C2 Forms of Energy
C2 P2 Potential Energy
C2 P2.pl Potential Energy essential P2.p1A Describe energy changes associated with changes of state in terms of the arrangement and order of the atoms (molecules) in each state. (prerequisite)
C2 P2.pl Potential Energy essential P2.p1B Use the positions and arrangements of atoms and molecules in solid, liquid, and gas state to explain the need for an input of energy for melting and boiling and a release of energy in condensation and freezing. (prerequisite)
C2 C2.1x Chemical Potential Energy
C2 C2.1x Chemical Potential Energy core C2.1a Explain the changes in potential energy (due to electrostatic interactions) as a chemical bond forms and use this to explain why bond breaking always requires energy.
C2 C2.1x Chemical Potential Energy core C2.1b Describe energy changes associated with chemical reactions in terms of bonds broken and formed (including intermolecular forces).
C2 C2.1x Chemical Potential Energy core C2.1c Compare qualitatively the energy changes associated with melting various types of solids in terms of the types of forces between the particles in the solid.
C2 C2.2 Molecules in Motion
C2 C2.2 Molecules in Motion essential C2.2A Describe conduction in terms of molecules bumping into each other to transfer energy. Explain why there is better conduction in solids and liquids than gases.
C2 C2.2 Molecules in Motion essential C2.2B Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms) making up the substance.
C2 C2.2x Molecular Entropy
C2 C2.2x Molecular Entropy core C2.2c Explain changes in pressure, volume, and temperature for gases using the kinetic molecular model.
C2 C2.2x Molecular Entropy core C2.2d Explain convection and the difference in transfer of thermal energy for solids, liquids, and gases using evidence that molecules are in constant motion.
C2 C2.2x Molecular Entropy core C2.2e Compare the entropy of solids, liquids, and gases.
C2 C2.2x Molecular Entropy core C2.2f Compare the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a metal object and a wood object at room temperature.
C2 C2.3x Breaking Chemical Bonds
C2 C2.3x Breaking Chemical Bonds core C2.3a Explain how the rate of a given chemical reaction is dependent on the temperature and the activation energy.
C2 C2.3x Breaking Chemical Bonds core C2.3b Draw and analyze a diagram to show the activation energy for an exothermic reaction that is very slow at room temperature.
C2 C2.4x Electron Movement
C2 C2.4x Electron Movement core C2.4a Describe energy changes in flame tests of common elements in terms of the (characteristic) electron transitions.
C2 C2.4x Electron Movement core C2.4b Contrast the mechanism of energy changes and the appearance of absorption and emission spectra.
C2 C2.4x Electron Movement core C2.4c Explain why an atom can absorb only certain wavelengths of light.
C2 C2.4x Electron Movement core C2.4d Compare various wavelengths of light (visible and nonvisible) in terms of frequency and relative energy.
C2 C2.5x Nuclear Stability
C2 C2.5x Nuclear Stability core C2.5a Determine the age of materials using the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes of a particular type.
C2 C2.5x Nuclear Stability recommended C2.r5b Illustrate how elements can change in nuclear reactions using balanced equations. (recommended)
C2 C2.5x Nuclear Stability recommended C2.r5c Describe the potential energy changes as two protons approach each other. (recommended)
C2 C2.5x Nuclear Stability recommended C2.r5d Describe how and where all the elements on earth were formed. (recommended)
C3 Energy Transfer and Conservation
C3 P3.p1 Conservation of Energy
C3 P3.p1 Conservation of Energy prerequisite P3.p1A Explain that the amount of energy necessary to heat a substance will be the same as the amount of energy released when the substance is cooled to the original temperature. (prerequisite)
C3 C3.1x Hess's Law
C3 C3.1x Hess's Law core C3.1a Calculate the ?H for a given reaction using Hess
C3 C3.1x Hess's Law core C3.1b Draw enthalpy diagrams for exothermic and endothermic reactions.
C3 C3.1x Hess's Law core C3.1c Calculate the ?H for a chemical reaction using simple coffee cup calorimetry.
C3 C3.1x Hess's Law core C3.1d Calculate the amount of heat produced for a given mass of reactant from a balanced chemical equation.
C3 P3.p2 Energy Transfer
C3 P3.p2 Energy Transfer prerequisite P3.p2A Trace (or diagram) energy transfers involving various types of energy including nuclear, chemical, electrical, sound, and light. (prerequisite)
C3 C3.2x Enthalpy
C3 C3.2x Enthalpy core C3.2a Describe the energy changes in photosynthesis and in the combustion of sugar in terms of bond breaking and bond making.
C3 C3.2x Enthalpy core C3.2b Describe the relative strength of single, double, and triple covalent bonds between nitrogen atoms.
C3 C3.3 Heating Impacts
C3 C3.3 Heating Impacts essential C3.3A Describe how heat is conducted in a solid.
C3 C3.3 Heating Impacts essential C3.3B Describe melting on a molecular level.
C3 C3.3x Bond Energy
C3 C3.3x Bond Energy core C3.3c Explain why it is necessary for a molecule to absorb energy in order to break a chemical bond.
C3 C3.4 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
C3 C3.4 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions essential C3.4A Use the terms endothermic and exothermic correctly to describe chemical reactions in the laboratory.
C3 C3.4 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions essential C3.4B Explain why chemical reactions will either release or absorb energy.
C3 C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy
C3 C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy core C3.4c Write chemical equations including the heat term as a part of equation or using ?H notation.
C3 C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy core C3.4d Draw enthalpy diagrams for reactants and products in endothermic and exothermic reactions.
C3 C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy core C3.4e Predict if a chemical reaction is spontaneous given the enthalpy (?H) and entropy (?S) changes for the reaction using Gibb
C3 C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy core C3.4f Explain why some endothermic reactions are spontaneous at room temperature.
C3 C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy core C3.4g Explain why gases are less soluble in warm water than cold water.
C3 C3.5x Mass Defect
C3 C3.5x Mass Defect core C3.5a Explain why matter is not conserved in nuclear reactions.
C4 Properties of Matter
C4 P4.p1 Kinetic Molecular Theory
C4 P4.p1 Kinetic Molecular Theory essential P4.p1A For a substance that can exist in all three phases, describe the relative motion of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)
C4 P4.p1 Kinetic Molecular Theory essential P4.p1B For a substance that can exist in all three phases, make a drawing that shows the arrangement and relative spacing of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)
C4 P4.p1 Kinetic Molecular Theory essential P4.p1C For a simple compound, present a drawing that shows the number of particles in the system does not change as a result of a phase change. (prerequisite)
C4 P4.p2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
C4 P4.p2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures essential P4.p2A Distinguish between an element, compound, or mixture based on drawings or formulae. (prerequisite)
C4 P4.p2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures essential P4.p2B Identify a pure substance (element or compound) based on unique chemical and physical properties.
C4 P4.p2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures essential P4.p2C Separate mixtures based on the differences in physical properties of the individual components.
C4 P4.p2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures essential P4.p2D Recognize that the properties of a compound differ from those of its individual elements. (prerequisite)
C4 C4.1x Molecular and Empirical Formaulae
C4 C4.1x Molecular and Empirical Formaulae core C4.1a Calculate the percent by weight of each element in a compound based on the compound formula.
C4 C4.1x Molecular and Empirical Formaulae core C4.1b Calculate the empirical formula of a compound based on the percent by weight of each element in the compound.
C4 C4.1x Molecular and Empirical Formaulae core C4.1c Use the empirical formula and molecular weight of a compound to determine the molecular formula.
C4 C4.2 Nomenclature
C4 C4.2 Nomenclature essential C4.2A Name simple binary compounds using their formulae.
C4 C4.2 Nomenclature essential C4.2B Given the name, write the formula of simple binary compounds.
C4 C4.2x Nomenclature
C4 C4.2x Nomenclature core C4.2c Given a formula, name the compound.
C4 C4.2x Nomenclature core C4.2d Given the name, write the formula of ionic and molecular compounds.
C4 C4.2x Nomenclature core C4.2e Given the formula for a simple hydrocarbon, draw and name the isomers.
C4 C4.3 Properties of Substances
C4 C4.3 Properties of Substances essential C4.3A Recognize that substances that are solid at room temperature have stronger attractive forces than liquids at room temperature, which have stronger attractive forces than gases at room temperature.
C4 C4.3 Properties of Substances essential C4.3B Recognize that solids have a more ordered, regular arrangement of their particles than liquids and that liquids are more ordered than gases.
C4 C4.3x Solids
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.3c Compare the relative strengths of forces between molecules based on the melting point and boiling point of the substances.
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.4d Compare the strength of the forces of attraction between molecules of different elements. (For example, at room temperature, chlorine is a gas and iodine is a solid.)
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.5e Predict whether the forces of attraction in a solid are primarily metallic, covalent, network covalent, or ionic based upon the elements
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.6f Identify the elements necessary for hydrogen bonding (N, O, F).
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.7g Given the structural formula of a compound, indicate all the intermolecular forces present (dispersion, dipolar, hydrogen bonding).
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.8h Explain properties of various solids such as malleability, conductivity, and melting point in terms of the solid
C4 C4.3x Solids core C4.9i Explain why ionic solids have higher melting points than covalent solids. (For example, NaF has a melting point of 995
C4 C4.4x Molecular Polarity
C4 C4.4x Molecular Polarity core C4.4a Explain why at room temperature different compounds can exist in different phases.
C4 C4.4x Molecular Polarity core C4.4b Identify if a molecule is polar or nonpolar given a structural formula for the compound.
C4 C4.5x Ideal Gas Law
C4 C4.5x Ideal Gas Law core C4.5a Provide macroscopic examples, atomic and molecular explanations, and mathematical representations (graphs and equations) for the pressure-volume relationship in gases.
C4 C4.5x Ideal Gas Law core C4.5b Provide macroscopic examples, atomic and molecular explanations, and mathematical representations (graphs and equations) for the pressure-temperature relationship in gases.
C4 C4.5x Ideal Gas Law core C4.5c Provide macroscopic examples, atomic and molecular explanations, and mathematical representations (graphs and equations) for the temperature-volume relationship in gases.
C4 C4.6x Moles
C4 C4.6x Moles core C4.6a Calculate the number of moles of any compound or element given the mass of the substance.
C4 C4.6x Moles core C4.6b Calculate the number of particles of any compound or element given the mass of the substance.
C4 C4.7x Solutions
C4 C4.7x Solutions core C4.7a Investigate the difference in the boiling point or freezing point of pure water and a salt solution.
C4 C4.7x Solutions core C4.7b Compare the density of pure water to that of a sugar solution.
C4 C4.8 Atomic Structure
C4 C4.8 Atomic Structure essential C4.8A Identify the location, relative mass, and charge for electrons, protons, and neutrons.
C4 C4.8 Atomic Structure essential C4.8B Describe the atom as mostly empty space with an extremely small, dense nucleus consisting of the protons and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
C4 C4.8 Atomic Structure essential C4.8C Recognize that protons repel each other and that a strong force needs to be present to keep the nucleus intact.
C4 C4.8 Atomic Structure essential C4.8D Give the number of electrons and protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1 charge.
C4 C4.8x Electron Configuration
C4 C4.8x Electron Configuration core C4.8e Write the complete electron configuration of elements in the first four rows of the periodic table.
C4 C4.8x Electron Configuration core C4.8f Write kernel structures for main group elements.
C4 C4.8x Electron Configuration core C4.8g Predict oxidation states and bonding capacity for main group elements using their electron structure.
C4 C4.8x Electron Configuration core C4.8h Describe the shape and orientation of s and p orbitals.
C4 C4.8x Electron Configuration core C4.8i Describe the fact that the electron location cannot be exactly determined at any given time.
C4 C4.9 Periodic Table
C4 C4.9 Periodic Table essential C4.9A Identify elements with similar chemical and physical properties using the periodic table.
C4 C4.9x Electron Energy Levels
C4 C4.9x Electron Energy Levels core C4.9b Identify metals, non-metals, and metalloids using the periodic table.
C4 C4.9x Electron Energy Levels core C4.9c Predict general trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electonegativity of the elements using the periodic table.
C4 C4.10 Neutral Atoms, Ions, and Isotopes
C4 C4.10 Neutral Atoms, Ions, and Isotopes essential C4.10A List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or isotope.
C4 C4.10 Neutral Atoms, Ions, and Isotopes essential C4.10B Recognize that an element always contains the same number of protons.
C4 C4.10x Average Atomic Mass
C4 C4.10x Average Atomic Mass core C4.10c Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the percent abundance and mass of the individual isotopes.
C4 C4.10x Average Atomic Mass core C4.10d Predict which isotope will have the greatest abundance given the possible isotopes for an element and the average atomic mass in the periodic table.
C4 C4.10x Average Atomic Mass core C4.10e Write the symbol for an isotope, X ZA , where Z is the atomic number, A is the mass number, and X is the symbol for the element.
C5 Changes in Matter
C5 P5.p1 Conservation of Matter
C5 P5.p1 Conservation of Matter prerequisite P5.p1A Draw a picture of the particles of an element or compound as a solid, liquid, and gas. (prerequisite)
C5 C5.r1x Rates of Reactions
C5 C5.r1x Rates of Reactions core C5.r1a Predict how the rate of a chemical reaction will be influenced by changes in concentration, and temperature, pressure. (recommended)
C5 C5.r1x Rates of Reactions core C5.r1b Explain how the rate of a reaction will depend on concentration, temperature, pressure, and nature of reactant. (recommended)
C5 C5.2 Chemical Changes
C5 C5.2 Chemical Changes essential C5.2A Balance simple chemical equations applying the conservation of matter.
C5 C5.2 Chemical Changes essential C5.2B Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in terms of the properties of the reactants and products.
C5 C5.2 Chemical Changes essential C5.2C Draw pictures to distinguish the relationships between atoms in physical and chemical changes.
C5 C5.2x Balancing Equations
C5 C5.2x Balancing Equations core C5.2d Calculate the mass of a particular compound formed from the masses of starting materials.
C5 C5.2x Balancing Equations core C5.2e Identify the limiting reagent when given the masses of more than one reactant.
C5 C5.2x Balancing Equations core C5.2f Predict volumes of product gases using initial volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure.
C5 C5.2x Balancing Equations core C5.2g Calculate the number of atoms present in a given mass of element.
C5 C5.3x Equilibrium
C5 C5.3x Equilibrium core C5.3a Describe equilibrium shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier
C5 C5.3x Equilibrium core C5.3b Predict shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier
C5 C5.3x Equilibrium core C5.3c Predict the extent reactants are converted to products using the value of the equilibrium constant.
C5 C5.4 Phase Change/Diagrams
C5 C5.4 Phase Change/Diagrams essential C5.4A Compare the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of aluminum and one gram of water the same number of degrees.
C5 C5.4 Phase Change/Diagrams essential C5.4B Measure, plot, and interpret the graph of the temperature versus time of an ice-water mixture, under slow heating, through melting and boiling.
C5 C54x Changes of State
C5 C54x Changes of State core C5.4c Explain why both the melting point and boiling points for water are significantly higher than other small molecules of comparable mass (e.g., ammonia and methane).
C5 C54x Changes of State core C5.4d Explain why freezing is an exothermic change of state.
C5 C54x Changes of State core C5.4e Compare the melting point of covalent compounds based on the strength of IMFs (intermolecular forces).
C5 C5.5 Chemical Bonds - Trends
C5 C5.5 Chemical Bonds - Trends essential C5.5A Predict if the bonding between two atoms of different elements will be primarily ionic or covalent.
C5 C5.5 Chemical Bonds - Trends essential C5.5B Predict the formula for binary compounds of main group elements.
C5 C5.5x Chemical Bonds
C5 C5.5x Chemical Bonds core C5.5c Draw Lewis structures for simple compounds.
C5 C5.5x Chemical Bonds core C5.5d Compare the relative melting point, electrical and thermal conductivity and hardness for ionic, metallic, and covalent compounds.
C5 C5.5x Chemical Bonds core C5.5e Relate the melting point, hardness, and electrical and thermal conductivity of a substance to its structure.
C5 C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions
C5 C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions core C5.6a Balance half-reactions and describe them as oxidations or reductions.
C5 C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions core C5.6b Predict single replacement reactions.
C5 C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions core C5.6c Explain oxidation occurring when two different metals are in contact.
C5 C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions core C5.6d Calculate the voltage for spontaneous redox reactions from the standard reduction potentials.
C5 C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions core C5.6e Identify the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode in an electrochemical cell.
C5 C5.7 Acids and Bases
C5 C5.7 Acids and Bases essential C5.7A Recognize formulas for common inorganic acids, carboxylic acids, and bases formed from families I and II.
C5 C5.7 Acids and Bases essential C5.7B Predict products of an acid-base neutralization.
C5 C5.7 Acids and Bases essential C5.7C Describe tests that can be used to distinguish an acid from a base.
C5 C5.7 Acids and Bases essential C5.7D Classify various solutions as acidic or basic, given their pH.
C5 C5.7 Acids and Bases essential C5.7E Explain why lakes with limestone or calcium carbonate experience less adverse effects from acid rain than lakes with granite beds.
C5 C5.7x Bronsted-Lowry
C5 C5.7x Bronsted-Lowry core C5.7f Write balanced chemical equations for reactions between acids and bases and perform calculations with balanced equations.
C5 C5.7x Bronsted-Lowry core C5.7g Calculate the pH from the hydronium ion or hydroxide ion concentration.
C5 C5.7x Bronsted-Lowry core C5.7h Explain why sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain.
C5 C5.7x Bronsted-Lowry recommended C5.r7i Identify the Br
C5 C5.8x Carbon Chemistry
C5 C5.8x Carbon Chemistry essential C5.8A Draw structural formulas for up to ten carbon chains of simple hydrocarbons.
C5 C5.8x Carbon Chemistry essential C5.8B Draw isomers for simple hydrocarbons.
C5 C5.8x Carbon Chemistry essential C5.8C Recognize that proteins, starches, and other large biological molecules are polymers.