P2 | Motion of Objects | ||||||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | |||||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | essential | P2.1A | Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | essential | P2.1B | Represent the velocities for linear and circular motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures) | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | essential | P2.1C | Create line graphs using measured values of position and elapsed time | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | essential | P2.1D | Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | essential | P2.1E | Describe and classify varios motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | essential | P2.1F | Distinguish between rotation and revolution and describe and contrast the two speeds of an object like the Earth | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | core | P2.1g | Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension | ||

P2 | P2.1 | Position - Time | core | P2.1h | Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of circular (rotation and revolution), periodic, and projectile motions | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | |||||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | essential | P2.2A | Distinguish between the variables of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | essential | P2.2B | Use the change of speed and elapsed time to calculate the average acceleration for linear motion | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | essential | P2.2C | Describe and analyze the motion that a velocity-time graph represents, given the graph. | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | essential | P2.2D | State that uniform circular motion involves acceleration without a change in speed. | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | core | P2.2e | Use the area under a velocity-time graph to calculate the distance traveled and the slope to calculate the | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | core | P2.2f | Describe the relationship between changes in position, velocity, and acceleration during periodic motion. | ||

P2 | P2.2 | Velocity - Time | core | P2.2g | Apply the independence of the vertical and horizontal initial velocities to solve projectile motion problems. | ||

P2 | P2.3x | Frames of Reference | |||||

P2 | P2.3x | Frames of Reference | core | P2.3a | Describe and compare the motion of an object using different reference frames. | ||

P3 | Forces and Motion | ||||||

P3 | P3.1 | Basic Forces in Nature | |||||

P3 | P3.1 | Basic Forces in Nature | essential | P3.1A | Identify the force(s) acting between objects in | ||

P3 | P3.1x | Forces | |||||

P3 | P3.1x | Forces | core | P3.1b | Explain why scientists can ignore the gravitational force when measuring the net force between two objects | ||

P3 | P3.1x | Forces | core | P3.1c | Provide examples that illustrate the importance of the electric force in everyday life. | ||

P3 | P3.1x | Forces | core | P3.1d | Identify the basic forces in everyday interactions. | ||

P3 | P3.2 | Net Forces | |||||

P3 | P3.2 | Net Forces | essential | P3.2A | Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces (e.g., wind, tension in ropes, pushes and pulls, weight). | ||

P3 | P3.2 | Net Forces | essential | P3.2B | Compare work done in different situations. | ||

P3 | P3.2 | Net Forces | essential | P3.2C | Calculate the net force acting on an object. | ||

P3 | P3.2 | Net Forces | core | P3.2d | Calculate all the forces on an object on an inclined plane and describe the object | ||

P3 | P3.3 | Newton's Third Law | |||||

P3 | P3.3 | Newton's Third Law | essential | P3.3A | Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table) | ||

P3 | P3.3 | Newton's Third Law | core | P3.3b | Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass | ||

P3 | P3.3 | Newton's Third Law | core | P3.3c | Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses. | ||

P3 | P3.3 | Newton's Third Law | core | P3.3d | Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses. | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | |||||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | essential | P3.4A | Predict the change in motion of an object acted on by several forces. | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | essential | P3.4B | Identify forces acting on objects moving with constant velocity (e.g., cars on a highway). | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | essential | P3.4C | Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in linear motion (Newton | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | essential | P3.4D | Identify the force(s) acting on objects moving with uniform circular motion (e.g., a car on a circular track, | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | core | P3.4e | Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in two-dimensional projectile motion restricted to an initial horizontal velocity with no initial vertical velocity (e.g., ball rolling off a table). | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | core | P3.4f | Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on | ||

P3 | P3.4 | Forces and Acceleration | core | P3.4g | Explain how the time of impact can affect the net force (e.g., air bags in cars, catching a ball). | ||

P3 | P3.5x | Momentum | |||||

P3 | P3.5x | Momentum | core | P3.5a | Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems. | ||

P3 | P3.6 | Gravitational Interactions | |||||

P3 | P3.6 | Gravitational Interactions | essential | P3.6A | Explain earth-moon interactions (orbital motion) in terms of forces. | ||

P3 | P3.6 | Gravitational Interactions | essential | P3.6B | Predict how the gravitational force between objects changes when the distance between them changes. | ||

P3 | P3.6 | Gravitational Interactions | essential | P3.6C | Explain how your weight on Earth could be different from your weight on another planet. | ||

P3 | P3.6 | Gravitational Interactions | core | P3.6d | Calculate force, masses, or distance, given any three of these quantities, by applying the Law of Universal Gravitation | ||

P3 | P3.6 | Gravitational Interactions | core | P3.6e | Draw arrows (vectors) to represent how the direction and magnitude of a force changes on an object in an elliptical orbit. | ||

P3 | P3.7 | Electric Charges | |||||

P3 | P3.7 | Electric Charges | essential | P3.7A | Predict how the electric force between charged objects varies when the distance between them and/or the magnitude of charges change. | ||

P3 | P3.7 | Electric Charges | essential | P3.7B | Explain why acquiring a large excess static charge (e.g., pulling off a wool cap, touching a Van de Graaff generator, combing) affects your hair. | ||

P3 | P3.7x | Electric Charges - Interactions | |||||

P3 | P3.7x | Electric Charges - Interactions | core | P3.7c | Draw the redistribution of electric charges on a neutral object when a charged object is brought near. | ||

P3 | P3.7x | Electric Charges - Interactions | core | P3.7d | Identify examples of induced static charges. | ||

P3 | P3.7x | Electric Charges - Interactions | core | P3.7e | Explain why an attractive force results from bringing a charged object near a neutral object. | ||

P3 | P3.7x | Electric Charges - Interactions | core | P3.7f | Determine the new electric force on charged objects after they touch and are then separated. | ||

P3 | P3.7x | Electric Charges - Interactions | core | P3.7g | Propose a mechanism based on electric forces to explain current fl ow in an electric circuit. | ||

P3 | P3.P8 | Magnetic Force | |||||

P3 | P3.P8 | Magnetic Force | prerequisite | P3.p8A | Create a representation of magnetic field lines around a bar magnet and qualitatively describe how the relative strength and direction of the magnetic force changes at various places in the field. (prerequisite) | ||

P3 | P3.8x | Electromagnetic Force | |||||

P3 | P3.8x | Electromagnetic Force | core | P3.8b | Explain how the interaction of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and the production of electromagnetic waves. | ||

P4 | Forms of Energy and Energy Transformations | ||||||

P4 | P4.1 | Energy Transfer | |||||

P4 | P4.1 | Energy Transfer | essential | P4.1A | Account for and represent energy into and out of systems using energy transfer diagrams. | ||

P4 | P4.1 | Energy Transfer | essential | P4.1B | Explain instances of energy transfer by waves and objects in everyday activities (e.g., why the ground gets warm during the day, how you hear a distant sound, why it hurts when you are hit by a baseball). | ||

P4 | P4.1x | Energy Transfer - Work | |||||

P4 | P4.1x | Energy Transfer - Work | core | P4.1c | Explain why work has a more precise scientifi c meaning than the meaning of work in everyday language. | ||

P4 | P4.1x | Energy Transfer - Work | core | P4.1d | Calculate the amount of work done on an object that is moved from one position to another. | ||

P4 | P4.1x | Energy Transfer - Work | core | P4.1e | Using the formula for work, derive a formula for change in potential energy of an object lifted a distance h. | ||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | |||||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | essential | P4.2A | Account for and represent energy transfer and transformation in complex processes (interactions). | ||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | essential | P4.2B | Name devices that transform specific types of energy into other types (e.g., a device that transforms electricity into motion). | ||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | essential | P4.2C | Explain how energy is conserved in common systems (e.g., light incident on a transparent material, light incident on a leaf, mechanical energy in a collision). | ||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | essential | P4.2D | Explain why all the stored energy in gasoline does not transform to mechanical energy of a vehicle. | ||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | core | P4.2e | Explain the energy transformation as an object (e.g., skydiver) falls at a steady velocity. | ||

P4 | P4.2 | Energy Transformation | core | P4.2f | Identify and label the energy inputs, transformations, and outputs using qualitative or quantitative representations in simple technological systems (e.g., toaster, motor, hair dryer) to show energy | ||

P4 | P4.3 | Kinetic and Potential Energy | |||||

P4 | P4.3 | Kinetic and Potential Energy | essential | P4.3A | Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food). | ||

P4 | P4.3 | Kinetic and Potential Energy | essential | P4.3B | Describe the transformation between potential and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g. pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts). | ||

P4 | P4.3 | Kinetic and Potential Energy | essential | P4.3C | Explain why all mechanical systems require an external energy source to maintain their motion. | ||

P4 | P4.3x | Kinetic and Potential Energy - Calculations | |||||

P4 | P4.3x | Kinetic and Potential Energy - Calculations | core | P4.3d | Rank the amount of kinetic energy from highest to lowest of everyday examples of moving objects. | ||

P4 | P4.3x | Kinetic and Potential Energy - Calculations | core | P4.3e | Calculate the changes in kinetic and potential energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, | ||

P4 | P4.3x | Kinetic and Potential Energy - Calculations | core | P4.3f | Calculate the impact speed (ignoring air resistance) of an object dropped from a specifi c height or the | ||

P4 | P4.4 | Wave Characteristics | maximum height reached by an object (ignoring air resistance), given the initial vertical velocity. | ||||

P4 | P4.4 | Wave Characteristics | essential | P4.4A | Describe specifi c mechanical waves (e.g., on a demonstration spring, on the ocean) in terms of | ||

P4 | P4.4 | Wave Characteristics | essential | P4.4B | Identify everyday examples of transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves. | ||

P4 | P4.4 | Wave Characteristics | essential | P4.4C | Compare and contrast transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves in terms of wavelength, | ||

P4 | P4.4x | Wave Characteristics - Calculations | amplitude, and frequency. | ||||

P4 | P4.4x | Wave Characteristics - Calculations | core | P4.4d | Demonstrate that frequency and wavelength of a wave are inversely proportional in a given medium. | ||

P4 | P4.4x | Wave Characteristics - Calculations | core | P4.4e | Calculate the amount of energy transferred by transverse or compression waves of different amplitudes | ||

P4 | P4.5 | Mechanical Wave Propagation | and frequencies (e.g., seismic waves). | ||||

P4 | P4.5 | Mechanical Wave Propagation | essential | P4.5A | Identify everyday examples of energy transfer by waves and their sources. | ||

P4 | P4.5 | Mechanical Wave Propagation | essential | P4.5B | Explain why an object (e.g., fi shing bobber) does not move forward as a wave passes under it. | ||

P4 | P4.5 | Mechanical Wave Propagation | essential | P4.5C | Provide evidence to support the claim that sound is energy transferred by a wave, not energy | ||

P4 | P4.5 | Mechanical Wave Propagation | essential | P4.5D | Explain how waves propagate from vibrating sources and why the intensity decreases with the square of | ||

P4 | P4.5 | Mechanical Wave Propagation | essential | P4.5E | Explain why everyone in a classroom can hear one person speaking, but why an amplifi cation system is often used in the rear of a large concert auditorium. | ||

P4 | P4.6 | Electromagnetic Waves | often used in the rear of a large concert auditorium. | ||||

P4 | P4.6 | Electromagnetic Waves | essential | P4.6A | Identify the different regions on the electromagnetic spectrum and compare them in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy. | ||

P4 | P4.6 | Electromagnetic Waves | essential | P4.6B | Explain why radio waves can travel through space, but sound waves cannot. | ||

P4 | P4.6 | Electromagnetic Waves | essential | P4.6C | Explain why there is a delay between the time we send a radio message to astronauts on the moon and when they receive it. | ||

P4 | P4.6 | Electromagnetic Waves | essential | P4.6D | Explain why we see a distant event before we hear it (e.g., lightning before thunder, exploding fireworks before the boom). | ||

P4 | P4.6x | Electromagnetic Propagation | |||||

P4 | P4.6x | Electromagnetic Propagation | core | P4.6e | Explain why antennas are needed for radio, television, and cell phone transmission and reception. | ||

P4 | P4.6x | Electromagnetic Propagation | core | P4.6f | Explain how radio waves are modifi ed to send information in radio and television programs, radio control cars, cell phone conversations, and GPS systems. | ||

P4 | P4.6x | Electromagnetic Propagation | core | P4.6g | Explain how different electromagnetic signals (e.g., radio station broadcasts or cell phone conversations) | ||

P4 | P4.6x | Electromagnetic Propagation | core | P4.6h | Explain the relationship between the frequency of an electromagnetic wave and its technological uses. | ||

P4 | P4.r7x | Quantum Theory of Waves | |||||

P4 | P4.r7x | Quantum Theory of Waves | recommended | P4.r7h | Calculate and compare the energy in various electromagnetic quanta (e.g., visible light, x-rays).(recommended) | ||

P4 | P4.8 | Wave Behavior - Reflection and Refraction | |||||

P4 | P4.8 | Wave Behavior - Reflection and Refraction | essential | P4.8A | Draw ray diagrams to indicate how light refl ects off objects or refracts into transparent media. | ||

P4 | P4.8 | Wave Behavior - Reflection and Refraction | essential | P4.8B | Predict the path of reflected light from flat, curved, or rough surfaces (e.g., fl at and curved mirrors, painted walls, paper). | ||

P4 | P4.8x | Wave Behavior - Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction | |||||

P4 | P4.8x | Wave Behavior - Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction | core | P4.8c | Describe how two wave pulses propagated from opposite ends of a demonstration spring interact as they meet. | ||

P4 | P4.8x | Wave Behavior - Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction | core | P4.8d | List and analyze everyday examples that demonstrate the interference characteristics of waves (e.g., dead spots in an auditorium, whispering galleries, colors in a CD, beetle wings). | ||

P4 | P4.8x | Wave Behavior - Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction | core | P4.8e | Given an angle of incidence and indices of refraction of two materials, calculate the path of a light ray incident on the boundary (Snell | ||

P4 | P4.8x | Wave Behavior - Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction | core | P4.8f | Explain how Snell | ||

P4 | P4.9 | Nature of Light | |||||

P4 | P4.9 | Nature of Light | essential | P4.9A | Identify the principle involved when you see a transparent object (e.g., straw, piece of glass) in a clear liquid. | ||

P4 | P4.9 | Nature of Light | essential | P4.9B | Explain how various materials refl ect, absorb, or transmit light in different ways. | ||

P4 | P4.9 | Nature of Light | essential | P4.9C | Explain why the image of the Sun appears reddish at sunrise and sunset. | ||

P4 | P4.r9x | Nature of Light - Wave-Particle Nature | |||||

P4 | P4.r9x | Nature of Light - Wave-Particle Nature | recommended | P4.r9d | Describe evidence that supports the dual wave - particle nature of light. (recommended) | ||

P4 | P4.10 | Current Electricity - Circuits | |||||

P4 | P4.10 | Current Electricity - Circuits | essential | P4.10A | Describe the energy transformations when electrical energy is produced and transferred to homes and businesses. | ||

P4 | P4.10 | Current Electricity - Circuits | essential | P4.10B | Identify common household devices that transform electrical energy to other forms of energy, and describe the type of energy transformation. | ||

P4 | P4.10 | Current Electricity - Circuits | essential | P4.10C | Given diagrams of many different possible connections of electric circuit elements, identify complete circuits, open circuits, and short circuits and explain the reasons for the classification. | ||

P4 | P4.10 | Current Electricity - Circuits | essential | P4.10D | Discriminate between voltage, resistance, and current as they apply to an electric circuit. | ||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | |||||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | core | P4.10e | Explain energy transfer in a circuit, using an electrical charge model. | ||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | core | P4.10f | Calculate the amount of work done when a charge moves through a potential difference, V. | ||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | core | P4.10g | Compare the currents, voltages, and power in parallel and series circuits. | ||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | core | P4.10h | Explain how circuit breakers and fuses protect household appliances. | ||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | core | P4.10i | Compare the energy used in one day by common household appliances (e.g., refrigerator, lamps, hair dryer, toaster, televisions, music players). | ||

P4 | P4.10x | Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power | core | P4.10j | Explain the difference between electric power and electric energy as used in bills from an electric company. | ||

P4 | P4.11x | Heat, Temperature, and Efficiency | |||||

P4 | P4.11x | Heat, Temperature, and Efficiency | core | P4.11a | Calculate the energy lost to surroundings when water in a home water heater is heated from room temperature to the temperature necessary to use in a dishwasher, given the efficiency of the home hot water heater. | ||

P4 | P4.11x | Heat, Temperature, and Efficiency | core | P4.11b | Calculate the final temperature of two liquids (same or different materials) at the same or different temperatres and masses are combined. | ||

P4 | P4.12 | Nuclear Reactions | |||||

P4 | P4.12 | Nuclear Reactions | essential | P4.12A | Describe peaceful technological applications of nuclear fi ssion and radioactive decay. | ||

P4 | P4.12 | Nuclear Reactions | essential | P4.12B | Describe possible problems caused by exposure to prolonged radioactive decay. | ||

P4 | P4.12 | Nuclear Reactions | essential | P4.12C | Explain how stars, including our Sun, produce huge amounts of energy (e.g., visible, infrared, ultraviolet light). | ||

P4 | P4.12x | Mass and Energy | |||||

P4 | P4.12x | Mass and Energy | core | P4.12d | Identify the source of energy in fission and fusion nuclear reactions. |